TCP/IP is an industrial standard of protocols suite designed for global computer networks. There is no difference to which net these computers are connected, or which corporation has designed attached devices – Macintosh or Windows, TCP/IP is a platform independent standard that links diversified computers, OS and nettings.
It’s interpreted as Transmission Control and Internet Protocols. In practice, TCP/IP is a suite of protocols where TCP and IP play basic roles.
On your device TCP/IP software is represented by specific realization of two basic protocols and other members of its family. Usually, it includes high-level application programs, such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol) enabled to control network files exchange through command line.
TCP/IP was conceived as a result of researches financed by Advanced Research Project Agency in 1970th. It was designed to unite research centers’ computer networks in one internetwork form.
The main reason why TCP/IP is important today is that it allows to independent nets cooperating with the Internet or combining for further private computer networking. On a physical level, computer nets connect through IP-routers and create an intranetwork. In this case, data is conveyed as IP packets or IP datagrams. TCP/IP software hides routers and basic networks architecture transforming all connections in one large network.
IP is a fundamental protocol transported IP datagrams through intranetwork and performed routing function choosing an appropriate way to datagrams tracking.
TCP is a higher-level protocol accepting which application programs share data regardless of their network area. The protocol divides data flow to TCP-segments and transmits them with IP assistance. In most cases, each segment is transferred in one IP data unit. As IP does not guarantee original consistency of received datagrams, TCP promotes repeated adjustment of segments at the ending point.
In such a manner, TCP/IP converts various small networks in one net and serves for information exchange between applied programs.
TCP/IP family protocols
- ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) translates 32-bit IP addresses in physical numbers of computer networks, for example, translates 48-bit addresses in Ethernet.
- FTP (File Transfer Protocol) allows transmitting files from one computer to another using TCP connections.
- ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) grants to IP routers a possibility transferring messages about errors or manage data to other routers and hosts.
- IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) permits datagrams’ spread in multicast regime among computers belonged to corresponding groups.
- RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) transforms physical network numbers in IP addresses.
- SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) defines messages size which used for e-mail sending from one SMTP server to another.
- UDP (User Datagram Protocol) serves for datagrams exchange with no data regulation and integrity. In other words, it’s an insecure service which does not maintain order of transmitted packages, can double them or even lose.